Primula (Primula) is a herbaceous plant of the primrose family, which are distributed almost throughout the globe, but mainly in Central Europe and temperate climatic zones of Asia and North America.
The name of the genus comes from the Latin "primus" - the first, which is explained by the fact that the primrose blooms in early spring, when the snow has not yet melted outside the window. In late February or early March, colorful bouquets in flower pots will cheer you up and can be a wonderful gift. Primrose arrived in our region from China. During flowering, this plant consists, as it were, of small "phonographs". It is very fond of experienced flower growers and those who received this plant as a gift. Now, in order to preserve it, you need to learn everything about caring for it.
The dignity of the primrose is not only the varied and bright color of flowers, but also the ability to delight with its flowering for a long time. The plant has perennial, biennial and annual species. Indoor primrose has a fibrous root system, a very short stem and soft, slightly fluffy leaves. The color of flowers is lilac, pink, purple, milky white, dark blue, but the throat of the flower tube is always only yellow. There are usually a lot of flowers, they seem to be collected in a small bouquet.
Primrose is very fond of light and moderate heat, but not direct sunlight, but diffused lighting. The primrose flowerpot is best placed on the windowsill, located on the east or west side of the room.
It is better to grow primrose in a room with a temperature of 12 to 20 degrees Celsius. In winter and spring, during the flowering period, the most optimal temperature is 8-12 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, the plant remains blooming and beautiful for a long time.
When the flowering period is over, the plant can be transplanted into open ground. The ideal place for primrose will be a shady area, under the crown of a tree, which will become her reliable protection during heavy rain or from hot sunlight.
For the winter, you can again make a primrose a houseplant, but it's okay and leave it to winter in the garden. These flowers do great as garden flowers and can overwinter outdoors in temperate climates.
For watering room primrose, you need to use only water that has been settled for several days or rain (you can also thaw). The watering regime is different before, during and after the primrose bloom. During the flowering period and before it, watering should be moderate, but regular. The soil should always be slightly moistened, but overflow and waterlogging of the soil should not be allowed.
When flowering is over, watering is somewhat reduced. Now the plant needs to be watered only when the topsoil begins to dry out a little.
It is very important for primrose to be in a room with high humidity. With its lack, the houseplant will react negatively - the tips of the leaves will begin to dry, and the flowering time will be reduced significantly. City apartments, on the contrary, are usually characterized by excessive dryness of the air. In this case, the plant needs daily spraying. They need to be carried out regularly and at the same time make sure that only the leaves and stems are moistened. It is not recommended to let the water get on the flowers.
If it is not possible to spray plants, then you can put a flower pot in a small container with wet expanded clay. The plant itself will take the required amount of moisture.
For growing primroses, you can purchase a special soil mixture (for example, "Geranium Mix" is suitable), or you can prepare it yourself. To do this, it is better to take neutral soil, even from your garden plot, and mix it with a small part of the sand (preferably river and coarse). Or use a substrate of deciduous and sod land, peat and river sand in equal proportions.
If your indoor primrose is a perennial species, then it will need a transplant. Since the roots of the plant are not long, you need to choose a wide, but not deep flower pot. A thin drainage layer is laid out on the bottom (for example, expanded clay or fine gravel), and on top - soil.
A relatively simple and better way of breeding primrose is reproduction by division. Choose a three-year or even four-year-old plant after the flowering period is over. Parts of the plant are necessarily separated from the primrose with their own growth bud.
Seed propagation is a more troublesome and time-consuming method. Seeds are sown in any month of the first half of the year, but it is still more favorable to do this in the summer.
Pour the purchased "Universal soil mixture" into the prepared container and water it moderately. Further, the seeds are evenly distributed over the entire surface of the soil and lightly sprinkled with earth on top. You can cover the container with seeds with glass or use glass jars. Such a greenhouse is placed in a cool place. The sprouts should appear in about 15-20 days.
Dense seedlings can be divided and transplanted into individual pots. These pots need to be transferred to open ground, but always in a shady place (for example, under a tree), where the primrose will not be harmed by hot sunlight or heavy rain and wind.
With the onset of autumn, the plant is transferred to a cool room and left there until spring. With proper care of young primroses, they can please with their flowering by the New Year.
Forcing one plant is used once every three years. In the fall, with the onset of the first frost, the garden primrose must be dug up along with a small earthen clod and transferred to a flower pot. The plant should overwinter in a cold room (for example, in a basement or cellar) with a temperature of about five degrees Celsius. At higher temperatures, primrose will begin to grow and flower buds will be inhibited.
Watering is not required for the plant until the end of February. But at the end of the calendar winter, the plant must be brought into the house and regular and correct watering must be started. Very soon, the primrose will begin to grow actively and will delight you with its bright flowering. After flowering, primrose can be planted again in the garden.
For forcing a garden primrose, you need to take cuttings from mature plants or use its two-year-old seedlings.
Primrose can get sick after spending a long time in the garden. The signs of the disease can be easily spotted by the plant's appearance. Fungal or infectious diseases, as well as the presence of pests, manifests itself in all parts of the plant. Leaves may begin to dry out or develop dark brown or yellow spots. Flower buds will fall off without opening. And flowering may not come at all. The most common diseases and pests are spider mites and powdery mildew.
In this case, you should not move the primrose indoors, so as not to infect the rest of the plants. You must immediately use special insecticidal preparations.
Primroses / perennial flowers / primrose care
Carnation is a beautiful decorative perennial species that grows naturally in Asian countries. The flower was brought to Europe from China, Japan, Turkey. Now this plant is grown all over the world. It is unpretentious, tolerates heat and cool weather, gives not only attractive inflorescences, but also a pleasant aroma. Any kind can be planted in a pot and grown as a houseplant. The rules for caring room carnations at home are discussed in detail below.
Resistant varieties of stemless primrose - plants that last when growing, plastic and tolerant to the vicissitudes of garden life.
The best time to plant primroses is as soon as the snow melts, but if there is watering, they endure division and transplanting at any time convenient for you. Primroses take root at low temperatures (planted in late summer - autumn, they often bulge out after wintering).
Ideally, such primroses need partial shade with rich loamy soil, good nutrition (for abundant flowering), and the absence of both locking and drying out. But they will also tolerate full sun (subject to guaranteed watering).
Leaving primrose almost does not require.
It is useful to clean them of dead leaves after the snow melts, water them in the heat, fertilize them with complex fertilizer according to the season, and mulch. Poor wintering is usually characteristic of unstable varieties and when planted in a damp place.
First of all, blue and large-flowered ones fall out. The species are very stable and can withstand any snowless winters for me. It makes no sense to shelter primroses: they get wet more often than freeze, and this will happen much faster under cover.
The first primrose bush was presented by a neighbor in the country. From the beginning, I did not appreciate her gift. I thought some little flowers bloomed early and that's it. I started looking for information, found a name, read about different species and varieties, and away we go.
The next year, I bought all the colors in the store. Usually by March 8 they are brought to all supermarkets.
Many of me did not live to see the landing. But I am stubborn, I decided to try to sow with seeds the next year. And again, not everything worked out. It turned out that the seeds lose their germination very quickly. And in stores they often sell stale ones, but with improper storage indoors.
A year later, I already ordered fresh seeds from collectors and began experimenting with cultivation. And it began to work out. As it turned out, the seeds of the plants are more hardy.
There are already a lot of varieties, and all are grown from seeds.
I recommend this plant to anyone who has shady areas in the garden. Primrose is very good in partial shade or openwork shade. It responds positively to feeding with any complex fertilizer. It is also demanding for watering in spring, especially if the weather is very hot. Primrose can also grow in the sun, but it fades quickly. And I love to admire the bloom as long as possible.
It hibernates without shelter and any problems.
Be careful, in malls, primrose is often sold and the pots say obconica. This is just a room primrose and on the site it will not overwinter. It can be grown in an apartment. But that is another story.
For annual and abundant flowering, it is necessary to ensure proper care of the hydrangea after purchase. The bush at home should be transplanted into a different pot every year. To compose the soil for transplanting, 1 part of sand is taken, 3 parts of turf and 3 parts of leaf land. Mix everything, evenly distributing all the components.
Cover the bottom of the pot with a thick layer of expanded clay as drainage. Sprinkle the expanded clay with a layer of the prepared mixture, slightly crushing it. We carefully take the prepared flower out of the pot together with an earthen lump and place it in a new pot. We fill the trunk with a fresh earthen mixture, leaving the neck of the plant unburied.